Literature, Videos & Strategy Papers

Literature, Videos & Strategy Papers

Do you want to get brief information about Citizen Science and Open Innovation or immerse yourself more deeply into the subject? Here you will find a collection of strategy papers and informative articles (e.g. on methodology, data quality, history) and books as well as videos.

The list is not exhaustive and it will be expanded continuously. If you have any suggestions for other sources, we will be pleased to include them. Please send them to

Strategy Papers


BMBWF (2015): Aktionsplan für einen wettbewerbsfähigen Forschungsraum. [online]

Bürger schaffen Wissen (2016): Grünbuch - Citizen Science Strategie 2020 für Deutschland. [online]

European Commission (2014): White Paper on Citizen Science for Europe. European Commission. [online]

European Marine Board (2017): Marine Citizen Science: Towards an engaged and
ocean literate society. EMB Policy Brief No. 5, October 2017. ISSN: 0778-3590. ISBN: 978-94-92043-48-1. [online]

League of European Research Universities (2016): Citizen science at universities: Trends, guidelines and recommendations. [online] 


BMBWF (2016): Open Innovation Strategie für Österreich. [online]


Literature on citizen science


Arnstein, S. R. (2007): A Ladder Of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35 (4): 216-224. [online]

Bonney, R., Ballard, H., Jordan, R., McCallie, E., Phillips, T., Shirk, J. et al. (2009): Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing Its Potential for Informal Science Education. A CAISE Inquiry Group Report. Washington, D.C.: Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education (CAISE). [online]

Bonney, R., Cooper, C. B., Dickinson, J., Kelling, S., Phillips, T., Rosenberg, K. V. et al. (2009): Citizen science: a developing tool for expanding science knowledge and scientific literacy. BioScience, 59 (11), 977-984.

Cavalier, D. & Kennedy, E., B. (2016): The Rightful Place of Science: Citizen Science. Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes.

Cooper, C. B., Dickinson, J., Phillips, T. & Bonney, R. (2007): Citizen science as a tool for conservation in residential ecosystems. Ecology and Society 12(2): 11. [online]

ECSA (2015): Ten principles of Citizen Science. [online]

ECSA (2020): ECSA’s characteristics of citizen science. 

ECSA (20202): ECSA’s characteristics of citizen science: explanation notes

Eitzel, M. V., Cappadonna, J. L., Santos-Lang, C., Duerr, R. E., Virapongse, A. et al. (2017): Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 2(1), 1.

Finke, P. (ed., 2015): Freie Bürger freie Forschung. Die Wissenschaft verlässt den Elfenbeinturm. Oekom publishing house.

Finke, P. (2014): Citizen Science. Das unterschätzte Wissen der Laien. Oekom publishing house.

Haklay, M. (2013): Citizen Science and Volunteered Geographic Information: Overview and Typology of Participation. In: Sui D., Elwood S., Goodchild M. (eds) Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge. Springer, Dordrecht

Hecker, S., Haklay, M., Bowser, A., Makuch, Z., & Vogel, J. (Eds.). (2018): Citizen Science: Innovation in Open Science, Society and Policy. UCL Press. [online]

Kullenberg, C. & Kasperowski, D. (2016): What Is Citizen Science? – A Scientometric Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0147152. [online]

Miller-Rushing, A., Primack, R., and Bonney, R. (2012): The history of public participation in ecological research. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 10(6):285-290. [online]

Newman, G., Wiggins, A., Crall, A., Graham, E., Newman, S., & Crowston, K. (2012): The future of citizen science: emerging technologies and shifting paradigms. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(6), 298-304.

Oswald, K. & Smolarski, R. (ed., 2016): Bürger Künste Wissenschaft. CitizenScience in Kultur & Geisteswissenschaften. Computus Druck Satz & Verlag. [online]

Roy, H.E., Pocock, M.J.O., Preston, C.D., Roy, D.B., Savage, J., Tweddle, J.C. & Robinson, L.D. (2012): Understanding Citizen Science & Environmental Monitoring. Final Report. NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and Natural History Museum on behalf of UK-EOF. [online]

Tulloch, A. I., Possingham, H. P., Joseph, L. N., Szabo, J., & Martin, T. G. (2013): Realising the full potential of citizen science monitoring programs. Biological Conservation, 165, 128-138.

Tweddle, J.C., Robinson, L.D., Pocock, M.J. & Roy, H.E (2012): Guide to citizen science: developing, implementing and evaluating citizen science to study biodiversity and the environment in the UK. Natural History Museum and NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology for UK-EOF. [online]

Wanninger, K. & Hübner, T.(2016): FarbVerrückt - Lessons Learned. Erfahrungen der Teilnahme am Citizen Science Award 2015.

Wiggins, A., & Crowston, K. (2011, January): From conservation to crowdsourcing: A typology of citizen science. In System Sciences (HICSS), 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on (pp. 1-10). IEEE.

Wilderman, C. C. (2007): Models of community science: Design lessons from the field. In McEver, C., Bonney, R., Dickinson, J., Kelling, S., Rosenberg, K., & Shirk, J. L., (Eds.), Citizen science toolkit conference. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. [online]


Data management, privacy and intellectual property

Browser, A.E. & Wiggins, A. (2015): Privacy in Participatory Research: Advancing Policy to support Human Computation. Human Computation, Vol 2, No 1 (2015). [online]

Kreutzer, T. (2015): Open Content – Ein Praxisleitfaden zur Nutzung von Creative-Commons-Lizenzen. [online]

Scassa, T. & Chung, H. (2015): Managing Intellectual Property Rights in Citizen Science: A Guide for Researchers and Citizen Scientists. The Woodrow Wilson Center. [online]

Scassa, T. & Chung, H. (2015): Typology of citizen science projects from an intellectual property perspective: Invention and authorship between researchers and participants. The Woodrow Wilson Center. [online]

Theobald, E. J., Ettinger, A. K., Burgess, H. K., DeBey, L. B., Schmidt, N. R., Froehlich, H. E. et. al. (2015): Global change and local solutions: Tapping the unrealized potential of citizen science for biodiversity research. Biological Conservation, 181, 236-244.

Wiggins, A., Bonney, R., Graham, E., Henderson, S., Kelling, S., LeBuhn, G., et al. (2013): Data management guide for public participation in scientific research. DataOne Working Group, 1-41. [online]

Zentrum für Citizen Science (2018): Nachbericht zur Veranstaltung „Citizen Science & Recht.

Coordination / Motivation / communication / Evaluation

Bonney, R., Shirk, J. L., Phillips, T. B., Wiggins, A., Ballard, H. L., Miller-Rushing, A. J., & Parrish, J. K. (2014): Next steps for citizen science. Science, 343(6178), 1436-1437.

Cox, J., Oh, E. Y., Simmons, B., Graham, G., Greenhill, A., Lintott, et al. (2017): Doing good online: the changing relationships between motivations, activity and retention among online volunteers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. [online]

Crall, A., Kosmala, M., Cheng, R., Brier, J., Cavalier, D. et. al. (2017): Volunteer recruitment and retention in online citizen science projects using marketing strategies: lessons from Season Spotter. Journal of Science Communication, 16(01), A01-1. [online]

Eitzel, M. V., Cappadonna, J. L., Santos-Lang, C., Duerr, R. E., Virapongse, A., et al. (2017): Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 2(1).

Füchslin, T., Schäfer, M.S., Metag, J. (2019): Who wants to be a citizen scientist? Identifying the potential of citizen science and target segments in Switzerland. Public Understanding of Science, 28(6), 652-668. [online]

Gadermaier, G., Dörler, D., Heigl, F., Mayr, S., Rüdisser et al. (2018): Peer-reviewed publishing of results from Citizen Science projects. Journal of Science Communication, 17(3), L01. [online]

Geoghegan, H., Dyke, A., Pateman, R., West, S. & Everett, G. (2016): Understanding motivations for citizen science. Final report on behalf of UKEOF, University of Reading, Stockholm Environment Institute (University of York) & University of the West of England. [online]

Lewandowski, E., Caldwell, W., Elmquist, D., Oberhauser, K. (2017): Public Perceptions of Citizen Science. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. 2(1), p.3. [online]

Phillips, T., Ferguson M., Minarchek, M., Porticella, N., Bonney, R. (2014): User’s Guide for Evaluating Learning Outcomes in Citizen Science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. [online]

Phillips, T., Porticella, N., Constas, M., & Bonney, R. (2018): A Framework for Articulating and Measuring Individual Learning Outcomes from Participation in Citizen Science. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 3(2). [online]

Postles, M. et. al. (n.d.): Let’s Talk About Data. Communication principles for the wildlife recording community. [online]

Richter, A., Sieber, A., Siebert, J., Miczajka-Rußmann, V. L., Zabel et al. (2019): Storytelling for narrative approaches in citizen science: towards a generalized model. JCOM 18 (06), A02. [online]

Richter, A., Hauck, J., Feldmann, R., Kühn, E., Harpke, A., (2018): The social fabric of citizen science—drivers for long-term engagement in the German butterfly monitoring scheme. Journal of Insect Conservation, 22(5-6), 731-743. [online]

Rotman, D., Preece, J., Hammock, J., Procita, K., Hansen, D., Parr, C. et al. (2012, February): Dynamic changes in motivation in collaborative citizen-science projects. In Proceedings of the ACM 2012 conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (pp. 217-226). ACM.

Scheliga, K., Friesike, S., Puschmann, C., Fecher, B. (2016): Setting up crowd science projects. Public Understanding of Science, 0963662516678514. [online]

Citizen Science & Schools/ Cooperation Science & Schools

Hackl, M (2014): Methoden partizipativer Forschungsprojekte mit Jugendlichen. [online]

Kelemen-Finan, J., Scheuch, M., Bardy-Durchhalter, M., Stoeckl, N. & Winter, S. (2016): Maßnahmenprogramm für die Verankerung von Citizen Science im Lehrplan und in der Aus- und Weiterbildung der Lehrpersonen.

Scheuch, M., Panhuber, T., Winter, S., Kelemen-Finan, J., Bardy-Durchhalter, M., & Kapelari, S. (2018): Butterflies & wild bees: biology teachers’ PCK development through citizen science. Journal of Biological Education, 52(1), 79-88. [online]

Zentrum für Citizen Science (2018):
Empfehlungen zur Zusammenarbeit von Wissenschaft und Schule. Ergebnisse eines Workshops und Roundtables bei der 4. Österreichischen Citizen Science Konferenz (2. Februar 2018)

Unsuccessful Methods

Druschke, C. G., & Seltzer, C. E. (2012): Failures of engagement: Lessons learned from a citizen science pilot study. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 11(3-4), 178-188.

Kaufman, A. B. (2014): Let’s talk about citizen science: What doesn’t work. Animal Behavior and Cognition, 1(4), 446-451. online


DITOs consortium (2017): Citizen Science and Open Science: Synergies and Future Areas of Work. DITOs policy brief 3. online
Vohland, K., & Göbel, C. (2017): Open Science und Citizen Science als symbiotische Beziehung? TATuP Zeitschrift für Technikfolgenabschätzung in Theorie und Praxis, 26 (1-2), 18-24. online


Bio Innovation Service (2018): Citizen science for environmental policy: development of an EU-wide inventory and analysis of selected practices. Final report for the European Commission.

Haklay, M. (2015): Citizen Science and Policy: A European Perspective. The Woodrow Wilson Center. [online]

Hecker, S., Bonney, R., Haklay, M., Hölker, F., Hofer (2018): Innovation in Citizen Science – Perspectives on Science-Policy Advances. Citizen Science: Theory and Practice, 3 (1), 4. [online]


The Conservation Volunteers (TCV) Scotland (n.d.): Social Media. Guide to using social media for Citizen Science Projects. [online]

Ziegler, D., Krutsch, A. & Knapp, V. (2017): Social Media für Citizen Science: Workshop-Dokumentation. Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung – MfN, Berlin. [online] URL: 


Sturm, U.; Schade, S.; Ceccaroni, L.; Gold, M.; Kyba, C.; et. al.(2018): Defining principles for mobile apps and platforms development in citizen science. Research Ideas and Outcomes 4: e23394.

Further information is available on the following pages:

Bürgerschaffenwissen offers a collection of workshop reports about various citizen science topics like research funding, data quality or participation. [online]

Citizen Science: Theory and Practice is the first open access journal which regularly publishes articles about citizen science. [online]

As part of the project "Doing it together science" scientific articles and guidlines about citizen science and DIY science have been collected. [online]

Journal of Science Communication (2016): Issue 1, Special Issue: Citizen Science. Part 1. [online] 

Journal of Science Communication (2016): Issue 3, Special Issue: Citizen Science. Part 2. [online] URL: 

Journal of Science Communication (2019): Issue 1, Special Issue: User Experience of Digital Technologies in Citizen Science. [online]

The Conservation Volunteers (TCV) Scotland offers various citizen science rerports about topics like social media, school and engagement. [online]

Citizen Science Today. Monthly publications on Citizen Science

Literature On Open Innovation


Chesbrough, H. (2003): Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business Review Press

Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., & West, J. (2006): Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford University Press

Gassmann, O., & Enkel, E. (2004, Juli): Towards a theory of open innovation: three core process archetypes. In R&D management conference (Vol. 6, pp. 1-18).

Kooperation international (2015): Julius Raab Stiftung präsentiert Open-Innovation-Strategie für Österreich. [online]

Pénin, J., Hussler, C., & Burger-Helmchen, T. (2011): New shapes and new stakes: a portrait of open innovation as a promising phenomenon. Journal of Innovation Economics. 1 (7), 11-29.

Reichwald, R. & Piller, F. (2009): Interaktive Wertschöpfung: Open Innovation, Individualisierung und neue Formen der Arbeitsteilung. Gabler Verlag

Von Hippel, E. (1995): The Sources of Innovation. Oxford University Press

Von Hippel, E. (2005): Democratizing Innovation. The MIT Press

Julius Raab Stiftung (2017): Eine Open-Innovation-Strategie für Österreich: Grundlagen. Handlungsfelder. Maßnahmen. [online]

Julius Raab Stiftung (2015): Warum Österreich eine Open Innovation-Strategie braucht? [online]


Transfer of knowledge

Franke, N. & Pötz, M. (2008): The analogous market effect: How users from analogous markets can contribute to the process of idea generation. Working Paper, Vienna: University of Economics and Business Administration.

Hienerth, C., Pötz, M. K. & von Hippel, E. (2007): Exploring key characteristics of lead user workshop participants: Who contributes best to the generation of truly novel solutions?  DRUID Summer Conference 2007, Copenhagen, June 18-20.

Application of Open Innovation in business

Chesbrough, H. (2011): Open Services Innovation: Rethinking Your Business to Grow and Compete in a New Era. John Wiley & Sons

Chesbrough, H. (2006): Open Business Models: How to Thrive in the New Innovation Landscape. Harvard Business Review Press

Nambisan, S. & Sawhney, M. (2007): The Global Brain: Your Roadmap for Innovating Faster and Smarter in a Networked World. FT Press


Howe, J. (2009): Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business. Crown Business

Willfort, R., Mayr, P. & Weber, C. (2015): Crowdfunding und Crowdsourcing: Potenzial für den österreichischen Innovationsstandort.

Capineri, C. et al. (2016): European Handbook of Crowdsourced Geographic Information. London: Ubiquity Press.



Dr. Anett Richter (2019): Einsam oder Gemeinsam Forschen? Citizen Science. 
Dr. Anett Richter talks about opportunites of citizen science.

Ellen Jorgensen (2012): Biohacking – you can do it, too.
The co-founder of the biohacking laboratory “Genspace” gives an introduction to the worldwide biohacking trend and do-it-yourself biotechnology.

European Commission (2015): Environmental Citizen Science.
This video provides an overview of Citizen Science and shows an interview with the “Public Science” lecturer – Dr. Tom Wakeford.

European Citizen Science Association (Producer) (2016): Citizen Science in a Global Perspective.
In this webinar international scientists discuss the differnet forms of citizen science, the relationships between people involved and the line between empowerment and exploitation.

University College for Agrarian and Environmental Pedagogy (2015): Citizen Science Lehrgang.
The video explains very well, what citizen science means, how citizen science projects look like and gives further information about a platform and a new citizen science course.

Prof. Dr. Hubertus Kohle (2015): Prof. Dr. Hubertus Kohle: Was ist Crowdsourcing?.
The scientist Hubertus Kohle explains “crowdsourcing” based on the example of his citizen science project “Artigo”, an art history project.


Charles Leadbeater (2005): The era of open innovation.
In this video Charles Leadbeater explains that innovation is not only created by experts or big companies.

RRI Tools (2015): RRI for the Education Community.
This video explains how education can be supported through RRI and what opportunities the RRI Toolkit offers to help with that.

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